ITI (Interactive Technologies Institute) will have a large presence at CHI 2019, which is taking place in Glasgow, UK on May 4-9. This ACM conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems is the premier international conference of Human-Computer Interaction. This year, several Full Papers and Late Breaking Works have been accepted from ITI members.
List of Full Papers
"'When the Elephant Trumps'": A Comparative Study on Spatial Audio for Orientation in 360º Videos” - Paulo Bala, Raul Masu, Valentina Nisi, and Nuno Nunes
Orientation is an emerging issue in cinematic Virtual Reality (VR), as viewers may fail in locating points of interest. Recent strategies to tackle this research problem have investigated the role of cues, specifically diegetic sound effects. In this paper, we examine the use of sound spatialization for orientation purposes, namely by studying different spatialization conditions ("none", "partial", and "full" spatial manipulation) of multitrack soundtracks. We performed a between-subject mixed-methods study with 36 participants, aided by Cue Control, a tool we developed for dynamic spatial sound editing and data collection/analysis. Based on existing literature on orientation cues in 360◦ and theories on human listening, we discuss situations in which the spatialization was more effective (namely, "full" spatial manipulation both when using only music and when combining music and diegetic effects), and how this can be used by creators of 360◦ videos.
“23 Ways to Nudge: A Review of Technology-Mediated Nudging in Human-Computer Interaction" - Ana Caraban, Evangelos Karapanos, Daniel Gonçalves, Pedro Campos
Ten years ago, Thaler and Sunstein introduced the notion of nudging to talk about how subtle changes in the ‘choice architecture’ can alter people’s behaviors in predictable ways. This idea was eagerly adopted in HCI and applied in multiple contexts, including health, sustainability and privacy. Despite this, we still lack an understanding of how to design effective technology-mediated nudges. In this paper we present a systematic review of the use of nudging in HCI research with the goal of laying out the design space of technology-mediated nudging – the why (i.e., which cognitive biases do nudges combat) and the how (i.e., what exact mechanisms do nudges employ to incur behavior change). All in all, we found 23 distinct mechanisms of nudging, grouped in 6 categories, and leveraging 15 different cognitive biases. We present these as a framework for technology-mediated nudging, and discuss the factors shaping nudges’ effectiveness and their ethical implications.
"Dissent by Design: A Manifesto for CHI Manifestos” - Simone Ashby, Julian Hanna, Sónia Matos, Alexis Faria, Ricardo Rodrigues (invited for the ‘alt.chi special’ event)
The past decade has seen a welcome rise in critical reflection in HCI [29,13,3,19,20,21]. But the use of manifestos - not to promote but to provoke - is still rare in comparison to more established disciplines. Digital activism has given new life to the manifesto, and the manifesto may in turn give new life to CHI - prompting new ideas by temporarily liberating scholars from the confines of careful speech and rational argument. We present a manifesto for manifestos; a chance for the CHI community to question its status quo and dream of its possible futures using our purpose-built authoring tools.
“The Role of Physical Props in VR Climbing Environments” - Peter Schulz, Dmitry Alexandrovsky, Felix Putze, Rainer Malaka, Johannes Schöning
Dealing with fear of falling is a challenge in sport climbing. Virtual reality (VR) research suggests that using physical and reality-based interaction increases the presence in VR. In this paper, we present a study that investigates the influence of physical props on presence, stress and anxiety in a VR climbing environment involving whole body movement. To help climbers overcoming fear of falling, we compared three different conditions: Climbing in reality at 10 m height, physical climbing in VR (with props attached to the climbing wall) and virtual climbing in VR using game controllers. From subjective reports and biosignals, our results show that climbing with props in VR increases the anxiety and sense of realism in VR for sport climbing. This suggests that VR in combination with physical props are an effective simulation setup to induce the sense of height.
List of Late Breaking Works
“A Mouse (H)Over a Hot-Spot Survey: An Exploration of Patterns of Hesitation through Cursor Movement Metrics” - Lucas Pereira
This paper presents the results of an empirical exploration of ten cursor movement metrics designed to measure respondent hesitation in online surveys. As a use case, this paper considers an online survey aimed at exploring how people gauge the electricity consumption of domestic appliances. The results show that despite the fact that the metrics measure different aspects of the mouse trajectories there is an agreement with respect to the appliances the generated higher levels of hesitation.
“MyTukxi: Low Cost Smart Charging form Small Scale EVs” - Filipe Quintal, Sabrina Scuri, Mary Barreto, Lucas Pereira, Dino Vasconcelos and Daniel Pestana
As the electrification of the transportation sector grows the electric grid must handle the new load resulting from electric vehicles (EV) charging. The integration of this new load in the grid has been subject to work in the smart-charging research field, however, while normal-sized EVs often offer chargers or other functions that support smart-charging, smaller EVs do not, which could be problematic. Especially considering that the consumption of small EV when aggregated can be significant. This article presents the motivation and development behind the development of MyTukxi, a hardware and software system that aims at implementing smart-charging algorithms for low consuming electric vehicles (EV), interacting with drivers to compensate for the lack of smart-charging functionalities in such vehicles.
“Digitally Augmenting the Physical Ground Space with Timed Visual Cues for Crutch-Assisted Walking” - Beatriz Peres, Pedro Campos, Aida Azadegan
This late-breaking work presents initial results regarding a novel mobile-projection system, aimed at helping people to learn how to walk with crutches. The existing projection-based solutions for gait training disorders are based on walking over a fixed surface (usually a treadmill). In contrast, our solution projects visual cues (footprints and crutch icons) directly into the floor, augmenting the physical space surrounding the crutches, in a portable way. Walking with crutches is a learning skill that requires continuous repetition and constant attention to detail to make sure they are being used correctly, avoiding negative consequences, such as falls or injuries. We conducted expert consultation sessions, and we identified the main issues that patients face when walking with crutches. This informed the design of Augmented Crutches. We performed a qualitative evaluation and conclude with design implications: the importance of timing, self-assurance and awareness.
“Visual Quotes: Does Aesthetic Appeal Influence How Perceived Motivating Text Messages Impact Short-Term Exercise Motivation?” - Lígia Duro, Pedro Campos, Teresa Romão, Evangelos Karapanos
Visual Quotes, or the communication of motivational text messages in a visual format, are increasingly used across social media and online communities. While physical activity trackers could leverage visual quotes, empirical studies of activity tracking in HCI research have paid little attention to this phenomenon and their potential effects on motivation. In this work, we conducted an online experiment (129 participants) to evaluate the impact of aesthetic appeal in motivational text messages as it relates to extrinsic identified behavior regulation. This is the type of motivation linked to the initial adoption of exercise behavior. The results of our study demonstrate that a perceived motivating text message presented with different levels of aesthetic appeal — ugly, neutral, beautiful — has the same impact on the motivation linked to short-term exercise (extrinsic identified behavior regulation). In other words, the perceived aesthetic appeal did not influence the motivating capability of textual messages for encouraging physical activity.
"MementoKey: Keeping Passwords in Mind” - Bongkeum Jeong, Alexander Vallat, Chris Csíkszentmihályi, Junwu Park, Dulce Pacheco
In this paper, we introduce a novel system of password generation, MementoKey, consisting of private words that exist only in a user’s memory and a corresponding set of public (non-secret) words that will facilitate users’ recall of the private words, which they are associated with. We will demonstrate how MementoKey offers a useful alternative to existing options for storing passwords in password managers, or to using cryptographically weak, but memorable, passwords. We have conducted a user study to evaluate the word-association technique for recalling passwords, and the effectiveness of our prototype software training and checking system to guide the user successfully through the memorization process. Our study involving 60 diverse participants indicates that our prototype can effectively lead users through a visualization and memorization technique to create a strong word-association memory between pairs of adjectives and nouns.
Student Research Competition
"Guidelines for Combining Storytelling and Gamification: Which Features Would Teenagers Desire to Have a More Enjoyable Museum Experience?" - Vanessa Cesário
While museums are often designed to engage and interest a wide variety of audiences, teenagers are a neglected segment. This PhD research in Digital Media explores how digital technologies can facilitate natural history museums in creating immersive museum experiences for teenagers (15–18 years old), especially through digital storytelling and gamification frameworks. This contribution would be a set of guidelines that will aid in designing interactive experiences inside these museums. So far, we have involved a total of 155 teens through co-design sessions, 130 in focus groups, and 98 in usability studies, as well as 3 museums, 12 curators, and 17 master students. Through qualitative analysis, our preliminary findings suggest that teenagers value gamification and storytelling elements when thinking about enjoyable museum tours, while curators value story-based narratives as the most prominent method to provide enjoyable museum experience for teens. Based on the findings identified, and in collaboration with the Madeira-ITI, two interactive mobile experiences targeted at teenagers were developed for the Natural History Museum of Funchal, Portugal.